Health Measures Under The Factories Act 1948

By- Anjanee Goel[1]

The Act makes a point by point provisions as to different issues identifying with health, security, and welfare assistance provisions. Sections 11 to 20 in Chapter III of the Factories Act, 1948 explain the provisions identifying with the health of the laborers in a production line.

Section 11 of the act describes measures related to Cleanliness. It states that Dirt ought to be swiped and cleaned every day. The flooring of the workroom ought to be cleaned in any event once in seven days. If the flooring is damp through any assembling procedure then a powerful and effective drainage system will be given. Roofs, walls, highest points of rooms ought to be painted or varnished. Then again, repainted and re-varnished once in 5 years.

Paints that are washable in nature may be repainted once in 3 years and washed once in a half year. If they have a waterproof surface, it ought to be cleaned once in 14 months at least. Other cases, for instance, white or color wash might be completed once at regular intervals. The wooden framework, windows, Doors, metallic edge work, and screens ought to be painted once in 5 years.

Section 12 of the Factories Act, 1948 describes the method for Disposal of Wastes and Effluents. There ought to be much planning and organization in the manufacturing plant that the debris and effluents can be disposed of without difficulty. Section 12(2) states that the State Government can frame rules with respect to such an organization.

The steps to be taken for keeping sufficient Ventilations and accurate Temperature are provided under Section 13. Efficient and reasonable rules and sections will be made in each plant or factory for making sure about and sustaining adequate ventilation and the dissemination of outside air in each workroom and states of comfort and prevention from injury to wellbeing to all the workers therein.

Any procedure which emanates high temperature has to be isolated. The rooftops and walls of a room will be made and structured with such material that such temperature will not be surpassed yet kept as low as workable. Alongside this, where the idea of the work carried on in the factory/plant includes the creation of exorbitantly high temperatures, satisfactory measures as are vital will be taken to secure the laborers.

Dust and Fumes related measures are given under Section 14 of the Act. There might be emitted any residue or smoke in a production plant in which the manufacturing process takes place. Its respiration intake by labourers in any workroom is harmful or hostile to the employed labour force.

Therefore, so as to forestall this, the starting point of the dirt, or other contamination, will be circumscribed to the greatest extent. Then again, in any plant, no fixed interior combustion engine will be run except if the fumes are directed towards the open air, and no other inside ignition motor will be operated in any room except if, necessary measures with immediate effects have been taken to keep such amassing of exhaust therefrom as they are probably going to be harmful to laborers employed in the room. Example: E.S.P. in concrete plants.

To maintain Artificial Humidification Section 15 provides certain rules. In regard to all manufacturing plants in which the air’s humidity is expanded artificially, the State Government might frame rules:-

  1. Recommending measures of humidification;
  2. Managing the strategies utilized for artificially expanding the dampness of the air;
  3. Coordinating recommended tests for deciding the humidity of the air to be accurately done and recorded;
  4. Recommending strategies to be embraced for making sure about satisfactory ventilation and cooling of the air in the workrooms; the water utilized for the reason will be taken from a public supply, or any resource of drinking water, or will be successfully decontaminated before it is so utilized. In any case, if the water that is utilized isn’t cleaned, he may hand out to the chief of the plant a request recorded as a hard copy, indicating the measures which as he would like to think ought to be received, and expecting them to be done before determining date.

Provisions relating to the prevention of Overcrowding are explained under Section 16. The packing of the crowd in a workroom influences the labourers in the carrying out of obligations as well as their wellbeing and health. The working space ought to be 9.9 cubic meters of room per labourer in each workroom before the instigation of this Act and after the initiation of this Act, the space per laborer is 14.2 cubic meters.

Proper Lighting should be sustained in a factory. Hence, Section 17 states that there will be given and kept up adequate and appropriate lighting, characteristic or artificial, or both, in all aspects of the industrial facility.

In each processing unit, every single coated window and skylights are utilized and workrooms will be kept clean on both the inward and external surface. In each manufacturing plant efficient arrangement will, so far as is practicable, be made for the avoidance of glare, either legitimately from a light source or by reflection from a smooth or cleaned surface;

For proper hygiene, guidelines for Drinking Water are provided in Section 18 which states that measures will be taken to give and keep up an adequate supply of healthy drinking water. Points ought to be marked as “DRINKING WATER” in the language comprehended by a larger part of laborers. It ought to be arranged inside 6 meters of any urinal, lavatory, spittoon, washing place, and so on.

The arrangement will be made for cooling drinking water during blistering climate by successful methods and for appropriation thereof in each factory wherein in excess of 250 labourers are normally working.

Latrines and Urinals are another aspects of maintaining proper sanitization in factory premises. Section 19 provides that sufficient toilet and urinal convenience of prescribed types will be given and advantageously arranged to make them open to labourers consistently while they are at the factory.

Separate encased accommodation will be given to male and female labourers and they’re ought to be satisfactorily lit and ventilated. They will be kept up in a perfect and sterile condition consistently. Sweepers will be put to work whose essential obligation would be to keep toilets, urinals and washing places clean.

Rules regarding accessibility to Spittoons are provided under Section 20 of the Act. There will be given an adequate number of spittoons in enough spots and they will be kept up in a perfect and clean condition. The State Government might make rules recommending the sort and the quantity of spittoons to be given and their position in any industrial facility.


[1] 5th Year, BBA LLB (H.) in Corporate Laws, UPES, Dehradun.

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